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thanatassa eNotes educator| Certified Educator

The single most abundant element in the universe is hydrogen. It has an atomic weight of 1. Its most common form, protium, consists of one proton and one electron. It has two other isotopes, deuterium, and tritium. Deuterium has a nucleus consisting of one proton and one neutron, and tritium has two neutrons and a proton in its nucleus. Hydrogen is a major constitute of water, which consists of two hydrogen and one oxygen atom, and of organic molecules. 

The second most abundant element in the universe is helium, which has an atomic number of 2. It is named after the Greek sun god Helios. It is an inert gas. Its most stable and common isotope is Helium 4, the nucleus of which contains two protons and two neutrons. 

The next most common elements in the universe are Oxygen, Neon, Nitrogen, Carbon, and Silicon.

t-rashmi | Student

Some common elements are

1.Gold and Silver which we call as 'precious metals',

2.Gases like Oxygen, Nitrogen,Hydrogen, Chlorine, Neon and Helium

3.Liquid metal Mercury.

4.Soft metal like Sodium and light metal like Aluminium

5.Others like Carbon, Copper, Iron,Phosphorus,Manganese, Zinc and Sulfur

Elements(Sr.No.2 -5) are essential for plant life and for other living beings. Each has one or more vital roles to play.

The detailed chart can be seen at the reference link mentioned below

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