Can "Kubla Khan" be described as an incoherent poem? Why?

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Coleridge’s poem is incomplete, not incoherent. That is, the form of the poem we have is not the complete text Coleridge famously dreamed under the influence of opium in 1797. According to Coleridge, he dreamed the whole text of the poem, but could only write the first part before he was interrupted by a visitor, after which he was unable to continue. Coleridge himself did not think much of the poem, viewing it as a “psychological curiosity” more than anything else. Nevertheless, as other answers to this question have pointed out, there is a richness of imagery and a consistency of rhyme and meter that binds the whole together.

The action of the poem, beginning with the description of the “stately pleasure dome” and continuing through the description of the sacred river to the “ancestral voices prophesying war,” suggest that the missing part of Coleridge’s poem might have been a reflection on the contrast between the pleasure dome and the inevitability of war. The next section of the poem, in which the poet sees the vision of “a damsel with a dulcimer” plainly is a reflection on the lost lines of the poem:

Could I revive within me
Her symphony and song,
To such a deep delight ’twould win me,
That with music loud and long,
I would build that dome in air,
That sunny dome! those caves of ice!

The dome is an image of paradise. The power of the image is such that it could have transformed the poet:

And all who heard should see them there,
And all should cry, Beware! Beware!
His flashing eyes, his floating hair!
Weave a circle round him thrice,
And close your eyes with holy dread
For he on honey-dew hath fed,
And drunk the milk of Paradise.

The “milk of paradise” perhaps can be understood as poetic insight; at any rate, the final lines clearly lament the lost vision. Far from being incoherent, the poem, for all its incompleteness, suggests the scope and ambition of Coleridge’s poetry.

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No, "Kubla Khan" is not an incoherent poem; it is a fragment. According to Samuel Taylor Coleridge, he experienced the poem in a vision while he was in an opium-induced sleep. The poem composed itself in his mind, complete with visuals, and was from 200 to 300 lines long, but when he woke up, he only had time to write down the first 36 lines before he was interrupted. Later, he couldn't recall the rest. Lines 37 - 54 seem to be of a different character and were probably not part of the words he dreamed. 

Although the poem was composed in an unusual manner, it is completely coherent. The sentences are all syntactically correct, the poem is full of imagery, and an obvious rhythm and rhyme scheme are maintained. To compare, one could consider E. E. Cummings' poem "My Father Moved through Dooms of Love" (link below) to see how Cummings distorts language and syntax. Even in Cummings' poem, however, the praise of his father is the clear message, so it is not exactly incoherent. But Kubla Khan, in contrast, presents no such challenge to a normal reading of the text. The words and sentence structure are easily understood.

In fact, the imagery Coleridge uses is lovely. First the "pleasure-dome" is described with its walls, towers, and gardens surrounded by fertile fields and forests. Next the chasm, the river, and the fountain are described, and then the river that ran "five miles meandering with a mazy motion." The only human action in the scene is in line 29 where Kubla Khan hears the war chant. The final section seems to be an epilogue where the poet imagines himself in that place and wishes he could gain back his lost vision. The entire poem uses iambic rhythm and rhymes, sometimes in couplets, and sometimes in other patterns, that unify the poem.  

Far from being incoherent, "Kubla Khan" is an intriguing fragment of a poem that the writer wished he could have completed--a sentiment with which generations of readers concur.

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I suppose it can be described as incoherent. Its various parts don't seem to have much to do with one another and the whole is difficult, if not impossible, to picture. He switched from a description of the setting to the sacred river's emptying into the lifeless ocean, and without warning we hear ancient voices prophesying war. From there, he switches to his vision of a woman playing an instrument and singing, which reminds him of the pleasure dome. Then he becomes a magical being against which people must work charms to protect themselves. 

There is, however, some sense to it. He connects the stanzas with images from the stately pleasure dome of Xanadu so that the poem comes across as a dream. It's still incoherent, yes, but for a dream? Not so much. 

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