The first Battle of the Weldon Railroad (June 21-23, 1864), now more commonly referred to as the Battle of the Jerusalem Plank Road, was part of the Petersburg Campaign. The end result was another poorly led plan of attack by Union forces, primarily consisting of Brig. Gen. Lewis A. Grant's 1st Vermont Brigade. The Vermonters were opposed by Confederates under the command of Brig. Gen. (later Maj. Gen.) William Mahone. Mahone, a railroad engineer before the war, personally devised a plan of surprise attack, hiding his regiments in a hidden ravine in the rear of the Union line. The Confederate attack was described as "more than a surprise. It was an astonishment."
Union losses totaled nearly 3000 (the majority taken prisoner by Brig. Gen. Edward Perry's Florida Brigade) compared with the Confederates' 572. Despite the numbers, the battle was considered inconclusive; the Confederates held onto the railroad, but the Union troops managed to destroy a section of track.
New York regiments involved included:
- 125th New York Volunteer Infantry
- 106th New York Infantry
- 4th Regiment Heavy Artillery
- 7th Regiment Heavy Artillery (Albany County)
- 9th Regiment Heavy Artillery (Cayuga & Wayne Counties)
- 15th Regiment Heavy Artillery