Can anyone help me out with these questions? 7. How did Jack appear on the beach? 9. Who takes responsibility for the events on the island?
Your second question really has no answer, so I'll concentrate on the Jack question, found in chapter 1 of Lord of the Flies. Jack is head chorister (simply, it seems, because he can sing a C sharp), and when we meet the choirboys for the first time, he is their spokesman. They've followed the sound of the conch, assuming it was a trumpet call and assuming there would be an adult blowing it. We're not sure what we're seeing, at first:
Within the diamond haze of the beach something dark was fumbling along.... The the creature stepped from mirage to clear sand, and they saw that the darkness was not all shadow but mostly clothing. The creature was a party of boys.
The walked in two synchronized lines, and they each "wore a square black cap with a silver badge on it." They were covered, neck to toe, by flowing black capes and each wore a "hambone frill" (think Queen Elizabeth I) around his neck. I picture them as kind of a moving, dark animal making its way across the beach.
I'm always struck by this initial image of Jack and choir--the future hunters described twice in two sentences as a "creature" is clear foreshadowing of what they will become.