With the exception of issues arising from the Civil War, the political issues of the Gilded Age were largely centered around class.
The most important issues of the Gilded Age were those that pitted poorer people (workers and farmers) against richer people. We can see this, for example, in the struggles over the creation of labor unions. We can also see it in the populist push for regulation of industries such as the railroad industry. Finally, we can see it in the fight for "free silver." In all of these cases, poorer people were pushing for what they saw as a fairer and more just society while the richer people were pushing for more of an unfettered, free enterprise system which would in their minds be better for themselves and, ostensibly, for the country.