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The simplest process is to heat lithium in the presence of chlorine:
Li + Cl -> LiCl
or to make it a bit more complex, create lithium oxide and free an oxygen atom by burning two atoms of lithium in oxygen:
2(Li) + O2 -> Li2O + O
and then dissolving the lithium oxide in hydrochloric acid:
Li2O + 2(HCl) -> 2(LiCl) + H20
yielding 2 molecules of lithium chloride and a molecule of water.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., vol. 16, pg. 785.
"Lithium is the first member of the alkali metal family. The alkali metals are the elements that make up Group 1 (IA) of the periodic table." One way to make lithium chloride is to react the hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The resulting salt can then be purified by recrystallization. A second way to create this compound is to have the lithium metal react vigorously with one of the halogens to form sodium halides. If you do this, it burns with chlorine, Cl2, to form lithium(I) chloride, LiCl. " Lithium does not react with oxygen at room temperature, but above 100°C does so to form lithium oxide (Li20). Under the proper conditions, the element also combines with sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, and the halogens."
Lithium is found in Group I elements, consisting of alkali metals. It is one of the first three group I elements, and are called that because they react with water to form alkalis. It react with cold water to form hydrogen and an alkali. If a drop of solution is placed on a piece of red litmus paper after reacting, the litmus paper will turn blue in color. The element react quickly with water, and floats on it, and no flame is seen. The process is shown below:
lithium + water -> lithium hydroxide + hydrogen
2Li(s) + 2H20(l) -> 2LiOH(aq) + H2(g)
Its nitrate form is LiNO3, carbonate form is Li2CO3 and sulphate form is Li2SO4. It also reacts heavily with halogens to form halides, reacting with most metals to form salts.
The ore is heated at 1373 K to convert into less dense and more friable (easily crumbled) form. It is then washed with Sulphuric acid at 523 K and leached with water to give Lithium sulphate monohydrate (Li2SO4.H2O). It is then treated with sodium carbonate solution and HCl, which gives insoluble Lithium carbonate and finally Lithium chloride.
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