Segregation and the Civil Rights Movement

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By what methods did Southern white people seek to limit African American civil rights and liberties?

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There were many ways Southern white people attempted to limit the freedom of African Americans after their emancipation. In addition to the laws that have been mentioned in other answers, there were also great attempts to prevent them from voting and participating in local elections and businesses. African Americans were not permitted to operate stores for the most part, and those who remained free had a very difficult time finding employment, usually resulting in them becoming indentured servants, if not full-time slaves.

Many places employed various regulations to keep them from voting in elections to influence politics. The origin of the term "grandfathered in" comes from the policy of refusing to let anyone vote whose grandfather would not have been allowed to vote, and vice versa. The Southern whites would also frequently enforce voter ID requirements and occasionally require African-Americans to take writing and spelling tests to be permitted to vote.

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As soon as Reconstruction...

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