By the end of the 17th century, which European nations were in better shape, and which were weaker, than they were at the beginning of the 1500's?

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I bet that your textbook has a given answer that you are supposed to find.  You should look, because it may have ones other than these...

To me, the biggest losers over this time period were the Iberian countries -- Spain and Portugal.  At the start of the 1500s, these...

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I bet that your textbook has a given answer that you are supposed to find.  You should look, because it may have ones other than these...

To me, the biggest losers over this time period were the Iberian countries -- Spain and Portugal.  At the start of the 1500s, these were two of the most powerful countries in Europe.  They were the ones that dominated international trade and had divided the world between them.  By the end of the period, they have become much weaker.

The biggest winner in my opinion was England.  By 1700 this was perhaps the strongest country in the world with the biggest empire.  They were also the richest.

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