Define and give an example of broad spectrum collectors (hunter-gathers), horticulturalists, intensive agriculturalists, pastoralists and people who practice transhumance.

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acorn13 | (Level 2) Adjunct Educator

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Broad Spectrum Collectors - These are also commonly known as Hunter-Gatherers or Foragers. They rely on a wide variety of food sources, hunting down their food and gathering it from their surrounding areas. These groups did not raise livestock or grow plants, but collected it from their environment. They are semi-nomadic or fully so; they live in small communities (usually less than 200 people), and they are largely egalitarian and don't have a social hierarchy based on wealth or status. Labor is specialized or divided usually based on age and/or gender. Compared to other food systems, broad spectrum collectors usually have the most varied and balanced diets. 
An example of Broad Spectrum Collectors would be hunter-gatherer tribes before the agricultural revolution. A modern example would be the San of Africa. 

Horticulturists - These are people who grow and cultivate plants with only hand-tools. They would not use draft animals or irrigation techniques. This is usually done part-time while the other part of the time is spent raising animals for food or prestige. They can supplement their diet with broad spectrum collecting if needed/desired. They're more sedentary than foragers, but still remain largely egalitarian with small communities. Examples include those groups living in the Amazon Basin. 

Intensive Agriculturalists - These groups are full-time farmers who use use draft animals and mechanized equipment or technology such as tractors or rotators. These groups are highly sedentary and usually have social statuses and hierarchies based on production and/or possession quantity, as their type of farming is capital intensive. These groups have firmly established political systems, leaders, and big populations. Examples would be farmers in modern, developed societies such as the U.S.

Pastoralists - These groups raise herds of animals to subsist off of. They use these animals as food producers (meat, milk, etc), for their furs (sheep), or to sell. The animals they raise are domesticated herbivores which vary in species from region to region. Pastoralists usually have small, hierarchical societies. They can be sedentary, but may also move with their herds through the seasons. Modern examples would include the Maasai, Sami, and Kikuyu.

Transhumance -Those who practice transhumance are pastoralists that move  their herds in two patterns during the summer and winter. Usually, they move to higher pastures in the summer and lower pastures in the winter. Those who practice this are usually sedentary, with just a small group moving with the herds or moving them and leaving them for a time on their own. Examples include Irish sheep or cow farmers, the Qashqai, or Bakhtiari.

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