One has only to place a climate map of Australia next to a population density map of Australia to see that there is a significant association between the climate in Australia and where in the country people choose to live.
The population of Australia is about 24 million people, approximately 69% of whom live in major cities. The major cities in Australia are located on the southwest and southeast coasts, where the climate is temperate. People do live in the more remote areas of the country, but relatively few compared to the number of people residing in the major cities.
The remote areas of Australia are predominantly desert and grasslands, and only about 2.3% of Australia’s population lives there. Obviously, desert climates are known to have very hot weather in the daytime and very cold nights. So you can see that population density in the country is heavily influenced by its climate.
I’ve included links to the relevant maps below. I hope this helps!