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Diamond's main point was simply to look at human trends as the result of evironment and other factors more than as a result of human civilization's own decisions about their future. He looked carefully at a number of different societies in order to explain his theories. In order to examine his theory, he tries to tease out which factors played a major role in why certain civilizations developed in certain ways compared to others.
In the end, he concludes that more often than not the most important factor was geography and by extension the physical environment of a culture rather than religion, or other aspects of culture that we often think of as determining how a certain society developed or progressed.
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