In the book Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, how long has Victor been away from home, studying at Ingolstadt? 

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VictorFrankenstein spends more than four years studying at the University of Ingolstadt. Once he gets himself oriented and focused in his studies, he notes that:

at the end of two years I made some discoveries in the improvement of some chemical instruments, which procured me great esteem and admiration...

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Victor Frankenstein spends more than four years studying at the University of Ingolstadt. Once he gets himself oriented and focused in his studies, he notes that:

at the end of two years I made some discoveries in the improvement of some chemical instruments, which procured me great esteem and admiration at the university.

At this point, he feels ready to return home and pick up the life he had left behind. However, he then discovers what he thinks is a way to infuse life into inanimate matter, which has been a passion for him. He spends an extra two years at the University, solely concentrating on this project. He neglects his health by working relentlessly to achieve his ambition and cuts himself off from other people. Finally, in November, he brings his creature to life. At this point, he is horrified and runs off into the streets of Ingolstadt. He runs into Clerval, and then becomes very ill. Clerval nurses him back to health in Ingolstadt and by May Victor is recovered. He writes,

We returned to our college on a Sunday afternoon; the peasants were dancing, and everyone we met appeared gay and happy. My own spirits were high, and I bounded along with feelings of unbridled joy and hilarity.

At this point, he gets a letter from his father telling him William is dead and summoning him home.

All in all, he spends more than 4 and a half years in or near the university, the first two studying basic science and the second two concentrating on creating his creature.

Some websites show timelines with dates in years, but Shelley shows no years in her text, just the date 17--. Some scholars have tried to use days and months mentioned in the text, correlating them with perpetual calendars for the eighteenth century, but to no avail. Shelley apparently did not want her action associated with particular years.

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In Frankenstein chapters 8-11, we can deduce that Victor Frankenstein studies chemistry and natural philosophy in Ingolstadt for four years with Clerval, from 1788 to 1792.  Then, he creates his monster that same year, late November 1792.

After Victor creates the monster, he nearly goes mad from mental and physical exhaustion.  He is nursed back to health for the Spring.  In early April 1793, Victor resumes his studies at Ingolstadt with Clerval.  They study foreign (Oriental) languages together.  He only studies for a few months, until William is murdered, at which point he returns home.

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