Odysseus tests the loyalty of Eumaeus so that he can really ascertain just what kind of man the swineherd is. Does Eumaeus only treat Odysseus, now disguised as a beggar, well because he hopes for a reward, or does he do it to honor the gods and fulfill his duty to the traveler? Although the beggar-Odysseus claims to have some knowledge of Odysseus, and says that Odysseus is alive, Eumaeus will not believe him, and he claims that he does not treat the beggar kindly because of the news he brings (others have falsified such news before) but because of his "fear of Zeus, the god of guests" and because he "pit[ies]" the beggar. Further, Eumaeus passes another test, giving Odysseus his own cloak with which to cover himself while he sleeps; then Eumaeus goes to sleep outside with his pigs. "Eumaeus cared so much for his absent master's goods" that it "warmed Odysseus' heart."