In Book 14 of The Odyssey, why does Odysseus test Eumaeus' loyalty?

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Odysseus tests the loyalty of Eumaeus so that he can really ascertain just what kind of man the swineherd is. Does Eumaeus only treat Odysseus, now disguised as a beggar, well because he hopes for a reward, or does he do it to honor the gods and fulfill his duty...

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Odysseus tests the loyalty of Eumaeus so that he can really ascertain just what kind of man the swineherd is. Does Eumaeus only treat Odysseus, now disguised as a beggar, well because he hopes for a reward, or does he do it to honor the gods and fulfill his duty to the traveler? Although the beggar-Odysseus claims to have some knowledge of Odysseus, and says that Odysseus is alive, Eumaeus will not believe him, and he claims that he does not treat the beggar kindly because of the news he brings (others have falsified such news before) but because of his "fear of Zeus, the god of guests" and because he "pit[ies]" the beggar. Further, Eumaeus passes another test, giving Odysseus his own cloak with which to cover himself while he sleeps; then Eumaeus goes to sleep outside with his pigs. "Eumaeus cared so much for his absent master's goods" that it "warmed Odysseus' heart."

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I think the biggest reason for Odysseus wanting to test the loyalty of Eumaeus is that he has been away from Ithaca for so long, and he knows that there is a hostile force of the suitors in his palace trying to woo Penelope and take his wife and kingdom away from him. This must have made him incredibly unsure about his position. Although Athena has told him to go to Eumaeus, the wily Odysseus is never going to trust somebody straight off without testing their loyalty and checking that their character has not changed and they are still completely devoted to him. This is what we see in Book 14: Odysseus devises a number of tests to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that Eumaeus, the faithful swinherd, is still loyal to his master.

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