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In nuclear alpha decay an unstable nucleus changes by emitting an alpha particle. An alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons joined together, or one can also think of it as a helium j+2 ion. When this happens, the atomic number of the parent atom is reduced by 2 and the mass number is reduced by 4.
Americium-245 ---> Neptunium-241 + Alpha
Neptunium has two less protons (2 less Atomic Number) and 4 less mass number than Americium-245
In nuclear beta decay one neutron in the parent nucleus becomes unstable and decays into a proton and an electron. The proton stays in the nucleus and the electron is ejected. Because the parent nucleus loses a neutron, but gains a proton its mass number remains the same. However, because it has gained a proton, its atomic number goes up by one.
Fluorine-15 ----> Neon-15 + beta
Neon has one more proton than fluorine.
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