What do Beowulf's battles with Grendel, Grendel's mother, and the dragon have in common?

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In all three battles in Beowulf, which include Grendel, Grendel's dam (mother) and the dragon, several elements are present in each.

Beowulf faces seemingly insurmountable adversaries in each battle. Grendel has enormous strength. The first time he attacks the Hall of Hart, he grabs up thirty men and makes off with them, killing and eating them. Grendel's dam has great strength also, but the narrator notes that her power is less than her son's because she is a female. The dragon is able to fly and attack with fire and poison. While Beowulf has clearly proven himself on the battlefield, each of these adversaries is supernatural—beyond the realm of what occurs in the natural world. Suspense is created as he faces each enemy because none of them are human. Regardless of the odds against him, Beowulf is prepared to die bravely if he is not able to defeat these creatures.

Another thing that is present with each battle is that Beowulf fights without equipment that can destroy his enemies,...

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