According to Jerry Bentley in Old World Encounters, what were the ways that cross cultural exchange occurred?

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rrteacher | College Teacher | (Level 2) Educator Emeritus

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Cross-cultural exchange occurred in a variety of ways. When people travelled, when they traded with other peoples, or when they conquered (or attempted to conquer) other peoples, they engaged in cross-cultural exchange. The purpose of Bentley's book is to try to explore the changes that these cross-cultural changes provoked. Cross-cultural exchange might lead to conflict, but it could also lead to peaceful assimilation. It could cause immense change, or it could cause cultures to "reaffirm their cultural traditions." The point is that human contact, in all of its forms, leads to cross-cultural exchange, and that these exchanges have always been taking place, even in the pre-modern world.

Source: Jerry Bentley, Old World Encounters: Cross-cultural Encounters in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 5.

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beateach | Elementary School Teacher | (Level 1) Educator

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According to Jerry Bentley, in Old World Encounters: Cross Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times, cross-cultural exchange was a process by which pre-modern peoples adopted or adapted to foreign cultures. Cross cultural exchange resulted from:

  1. conversion through voluntary association
  2. conversion induced by political, social or economic pressure
  3. conversion by assimilation

As a result of these means of conversion, groups of people established new laws and rituals based on the exchange of ideas whether it was voluntary or involuntary as in the case of war. They wore different types of clothing, ate different food, and changed the way they related to family and friends. In some cases, the cross-cultural exchange lead to the use of new languages and religious beliefs. On the other hand, cross-cultural exchange could result in one group keeping its traditions and rituals while assimilating another group into its way of life. Therefore, whether cross-cultural exchange occurred by force or peaceful assimilation, it resulted in both large and small changes in living conditions as different peoples meshed their lifestyles.

Source: Jerry Bentley, Old World Encounters: Cross-cultural Encounters in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 5.

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