Some of the benefits of genetic engineering and biotechnology are:
- Higher crop productivity: High-yielding, insect-resistant crops are possible as a result of genetic engineering. The green revolution has transformed several developing and under-developed countries in terms of food dependency and economy.
- Higher cattle yield: This results in more milk, meat, and better nutrition. The term white revolution is used for higher milk productivity in India by higher-yielding hybrid cattle, made possible by genetic engineering.
- Better medicinal facility: Genetic engineering has been used to develop new medicines, e.g., insulin, etc.
- Forensics: DNA fingerprinting is used for criminal identification.
- Cloning and stem cell research: The regeneration of organs and cells is possible as a result of genetic engineering and biotechnology.
The detrimental concerns associated with genetic engineering and biotechnology include:
- Ethical issues with cloning: Issues with possible human cloning have been raised.
- Ethical and social issues with crops: Genetically modified crops, esp. the ones that do not yield seeds, are a subject of concern in a number of countries as they make the farmers dependent on the companies for seeds.
- Accidental release of transgenic organisms could be a potential issue due to competition with native species.
- Potential unknown (long-term) effects of genetically modified crops and animals on the ecosystem.
- Effects of modified crops and animals on human beings are not yet known.
Hope this helps.