Marco Polo relates descriptions in his Travels of lands that are defended by their inhabitants. For example, he relates descriptions of the conquests of the Tartars at places such as Vochang over the King of Mien and Bangala. Though the troops of the King of Mien and Bangala possess elephants, their troops...
Marco Polo relates descriptions in his Travels of lands that are defended by their inhabitants. For example, he relates descriptions of the conquests of the Tartars at places such as Vochang over the King of Mien and Bangala. Though the troops of the King of Mien and Bangala possess elephants, their troops are quickly overrun by the arrows of the Tartars. As Polo writes:
"But their ramparts were soon demolished by the Tartars, who slew many of them, and with the assistance of the persons accustomed to the management of the elephants, they possessed themselves of these to the number of two hundred or more. From the period of this battle the grand khan has always chosen to employ elephants in his armies, which before that time he had not done. The consequences of the victory were, that he acquired possession of the whole of the territories of the king of Bangala and Mien, and annexed them to his dominions."
Therefore, in this example, the movement of people through military conquest resulted in conflict and resistance. In addition, the movement of people (Tartars to this region) caused the dissemination of ideas, as the Tartars learned how to use elephants for military purposes. However, even this idea spread further conflict rather than peace, as the Tartars used elephants to conquer other lands.
Polo also discusses how the Kalif of Baldach (or Baghdad) persecuted Christians in his realm:
"From the time of his accession in 1225, his daily thoughts were employed on the means of converting to his religion those who resided within his dominions, or, upon their refusal, in forming pretenses for putting them to death."
Apparently, when the Kalif was about to put the Christians in his realm to death, they performed a miracle by which a mountain was moved. As a result, the Kalif and some of his people converted to Christianity. However, the movement of religions often resulted in conflict. While the great Kublai was himself tolerant of other religions and asks the Polos to have the Pope send Christian missionaries to his lands, the spread of Christianity and Islam, as related in the Travels, often results in conflict rather than in peace.