Based on what we know about Hume and Sartre, describe two big ideas from them that people should know. Why are these ideas from Hume and Sartre worth knowing?
In the field of philosophical thought, David Hume and Jean-Paul Sartre have advanced some big ideas worthy of consideration by twenty-first-century academics. Empiricist Hume set forth the theory of inductive reasoning as the most accurate method of arriving at the truth. French philosopher Sartre developed and popularized existentialism, based on the concept of freedom of choice to determine an individual’s own purpose in life.
Scottish philosopher David Hume is an empiricist or a person who believes that all knowledge comes from the senses. Empiricists argue that sensory perception is the way all human beings arrive at the truth. This view is opposed to rationalists, who believe that all knowledge is inherent in human beings at birth and truth is found by using reason alone. Hume insists that customs and habits formed through experiences lead humans to the truth.
In the field of epistemology, or the study of knowledge, Hume is a leader in the study of induction, which he distinguishes from deduction. Deduction is the logical process used to draw conclusions based upon things people know. For example: “All men are mortal. Jim is a man. Therefore, Jim is mortal.” Assuming the premises that men are mortal and Jim is a man are correct, the conclusion, or deduction, is correct.
According to Hume, inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning. It is more open-ended. It allows for the possibility that the...
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