Atticus is not one of those fathers who gives "easy answers." In fact, I imagine Scout and Jem doing a lot of eye rolling in their teenage years ("Come on, Atticus, all we asked is if we can have 30 more minutes on our curfew this Friday... ugh.") He puts things into perspective and forces his children to consider the big picture - always. In this way, he teaches them to think for themselves. *A concept that is so lost on today's youth.
One big example of this is in Chapter 3, after Scout's first day of school. Atticus could have said (like so many of my students' parents have) "Well, I'll go talk to Miss Caroline right now! She can't tell my daughter she's not allowed to read!" Instead, he told Scout to "Consider things from [Miss Caroline's] point of view... climb into [her] skin and walk around in it." As you can see from the use of brackets, Atticus wasn't even as obvious as I've re-written the quote. Scout had to apply his lesson twice - first by inserting Miss Caroline in place of "a person" and then by actually doing it.
Oh what would the world be like if parents were more like Atticus Finch!