In attempting to explain the persistent underdevelopment of Global South, some theorists direct attention primarily toward what happens within these countries, while others focus on the position of the developing countries in the world political economy. Please compare the modernization and dependency theories with regard to the cause of the economic gap between rich and poor countries.

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Theories of development propose paths to development based on presumptions about the causes of poverty. For classical modernization theorists, tradition is the cause, and therefore, the Westernization of cultural, social, economic and political structures is the solution. The new modernization perspective does not necessarily view tradition as a barrier to development. Instead, tradition is a factor that shapes the multiple paths poor countries take to develop, and international dynamics and conflicts may negatively affect development. Both the classical and new modernization perspectives view development aid, trade, and transfers of capital and technology as essential to modernizing.

According to dependency theorists, settler colonialism and subsequent financial colonialism created an unequal relationship between the poor underdeveloped "periphery" and the dominant Western "core." Therefore, their solution is utilizing local capital to develop national economies and weaken ties with...

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