Due to the fact that albedo is so high in the Polar regions, a great deal of sunlight gets reflected and this contributes to the cold temperatures. In areas which contain dark surfaces, such as roads made of asphalt, much of the sunlight is absorbed and converted to heat energy. Many surfaces can reflect sunlight including clouds, water, ice, soil, roads. Each has a different albedo however.
Albedo is the amount of sunlight that is reflected by a given surface. It is measured on a scale of 0 to 1 with 0 being no reflection at all and 1 being 100% reflection. So, for example, a snow field has a higher albedo than a jungle does because it reflects more of the sunlight that hits it.
When we are talking about the albedo of an object we are reffering to how much light the object reflects.