In many ways, the sentence itself is problematic. The European Renaissance many have influenced the development of modern Europe, but Europe is not the entire world. Also, the Renaissance itself was a rebirth of classical culture. Finally, it's really not possible to claim any one period or place as having the "most" impact on all aspects of the culture of the entire world; at best, we can simply indicate certain areas in which particular cultures influenced each other.
In religion, the Renaissance and Reformation marked an increased in religious freedom and diversity in Europe, a trajectory leading to modern western secularization of civil society.
Linguistically, the Renaissance marks the beginning of "modern" European languages and also a period of the rise of widespread vernacular literacy and a shift away from the dominance of Latin as an educated lingua franca and the beginnings of the rise of the vernacular for educated discourse.
The Renaissance contact between Europe and the Arabic and Byzantine worlds marked the beginnings of modern science, including the heliocentric account of the solar system, the discovery of the circulation of blood, and Newtonian physics.