In the United States of America, the 1920s, commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, signified a decade of drastic change, both economically, socially, and politically.
Free market capitalism really took hold during this time, and the total wealth of the Unites States more than doubled during the decade. This moved many individuals and families into the middle or upper-middle classes. With this newfound affluence, these individuals and families suddenly had more opportunity to participate in a consumer-based economy and society.
Chain stores popped up as companies moved to fill the wants of the consumer. National media distribution channels allowed for nationwide advertising campaigns. Throughout the country, more people from coast to coast were able to consume the same media, like music, and purchase the same goods and products, so a distinctly American culture began to form based on this idea of mass culture.
Socially, the symbol of the flapper took hold. A flapper represented a young woman who wore her hair in a bob, drank alcohol, smoked cigarettes, and had more casual sex. This social movement toward intemperance, immediate gratification, and independence mirrored the suffrage movement.
Politically, Republicans took control, favoring deregulation of business and social conservatism as immigration and a new generation of African Americans moved from the rural South into the urban North. Three Republican presidents—Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover—occupied the White House, and the recoil of their deregulation was felt during the Great Depression and the subsequent election of FDR, who supported legislation granting the federal government massive control.