Fanon argued, essentially, that years of colonialism had left colonial peoples not just politically or culturally, but psychologically subjugated. He rejected earlier anthropological theories that suggested that this state was somehow connected to something innate in non-white peoples. Most important, he encouraged colonial people to embrace their heritage and their beginnings. While he advocated education, he did not believe that people should don "white masks" in an effort to win acceptance from white colonial powers.
Methodologically, Fanon makes his argument by examining a number of cultural aspects that connected colonial peoples (in his case people in the West Indies) to the metropole. He analyzed language, the power dynamics in interracial relationships, dependency theory, and other aspects of the colonial relationship to argue that blacks in the West Indies should pursue intellectual and cultural autonomy rooted in their own experiences rather than defined within their relationships with whites.