aryansWhich is the first civilization came into existance in India.Are they Aryans.

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hi1954 | Teacher | (Level 1) Associate Educator

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The civilization which built the cities of Harrapa, Mohenjodaro, Dohlavera and others was quite advanced, using bricks of standard sizes and weights, and whose homes included interconnected sewage systems.  But the cities were apparently abandoned about 1700 BC.  The first link here goes to a sight with only the briefest information.

http://www.mrdowling.com/612-mohenjodaro.html

The site below includes much more information and slideshows of archaeological sites in the Indus Valley.  This is a really fascinating website.

http://www.harappa.com/har/indus-saraswati.html

Of course, the whole story of the aryan invasion, etc., is a recent idea of Western archaeologists' origin.  Although it seems as if the evidence fits, there are conflicting theories.  The website below leads to info about some of them.

http://www.archaeologyonline.net/

I'm not sure how to make these links active on this site, so good luck.

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hi1954 | Teacher | (Level 1) Associate Educator

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The term "Indo-European" is of linguistic origin, and refers to the related languages of that linguistic group. The language which seems closest in modern times to the "original" such language is Lithuanian.  The classical Indo-European languages are also referred to as "centum-sentum" languages, because of the differing pronunciations of the word for "hundred" in Latin and Sanskrit.  Hindi is an "Indo-European" language, as it is descended from and connected to this group of languages, as is English, Erse, Spanish, Russian, Estonian, Iranian, Czech, Italian, etc.

The people termed in this discussion "aryans" were a group of people who called themselves "aryas" and moved into the Indian subcontinent from the Caucuses about 3500 years ago. Although they discovered the deserted ruins of cities such as Mohenjodaro from the Indus Valley civilization, the only culture the aryas met was the Dravidian, which at that time was a late stone-age culture.  The Vedas and other books of the Sanskrit holy tradition are a melding of the Dravidian and other tribal cultures with that of the aryas.

The early Mesopotamian cultures, such as the early Babylonian and Sumerian empires, had come and gone before the period we're discussing.  The aryan migration began about 1500 BC, and early Mesopotamian cities were in existence with highly developed cultures well over 2,000 years earlier.  Writing was common by about 3500 BC.  There's no connection between the Mesopotamian and Indian cultures of which we know in antiquity.

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krishna-agrawala | College Teacher | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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Dholavira never co existed with either Harappa or Mohan-jo-daro, and thus there is no way both could have been abandoned around same time  - in 1700 BC or any other time. Actually there are a series of sites starting from Mehar Garh situated near Bolaan Pass in Pakistan and ending at Dholavira and many other places on India. History of these sites goes back to about 7000 BC or even earlier. People living at Mehar Garh these went on abandoning the older sites and moving to new ones towards east and south, through Mohan-jo-daro and Harappa to Dholavira and other places. Information on these sites are available from many sources. For ready references I am giving address of one site on the Internet about Mehar Garh.

http://www.visitpakistanonline.com/travelGuides/heritage/meharGarh.htm

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krishna-agrawala | College Teacher | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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Post #7 contains lot of assertions quite new to me. It is the fist time I am hearing/reading anything like Aryans discovering ruins of cities like Mohen-jo-daro.

I would appreciate if writer of the post can provide references to authentic sources supporting these assertons and providing more detailed data.

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krishna-agrawala | College Teacher | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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There are several inaccuracies in posts 2# and #5. In my post #3 I have already pointed out some of these.

It will require a very longish discussion to present a my view on  all the controversial points. I will just cover some very obvious ones.

Harappa was just one site among many similar sites that enable historians to reconstruct the knowledge about a common old civilization. This civilization is known by the name "Indus Valley Civilization" rather than "Harappan Civilization".

The civilization that existed at Harappa -, by whatever name you choose to call it, did not die with deserting of this settlement by its inhabitant. They just migrated further East and South in India. The farthest of these sites from Harappa and Mohan-jo-Daro (another such site discovered along with Harappa) is at Dholwaria in Gujarat state of India.

There is no evidence that the Indus Valley Civilization ever died. It just evolved into more developed civilizations. In this process it did borrow some aspects of beliefs and culture of Dravidian and other aborigines of India. This of course became the general ancient civilization with its highly developed philosophies and great works of literature such as Vedas, Ramayana, and Mahabharata.

Indian civilization was also influenced by foreign invaders, but these came much later. Finally when these invaders came, most of them settled in India. In the process, the iinfluence of Indian culture on them was much more than their influence on culture in India.

The concept of "Indo-European" invaders mentioned in post #5 is rather difficult to understand. If "Indo" in this term refers to India, What is meant by Indians invading India?

The statement about Mesoptamia expanding into empire in Indian Subcontinent is absolutely new to me. As per my understanding, the Mesopotamia civilization, as long as it existed was confined to the region which is more or less the current Iraq. Mesopotamia became a part of Persia around mid Sixth Century B.C., and thus lost its independent identity.

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epollock | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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Harappan civilization (so called because Harappa was one of its major cities) originated around 2500 BCE in the northwestern section of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan, along the Indus River.

The end of the early civilization period is marked by a hiatus around 1200–800 BCE. Harappan civilization, for example, simply disappeared. It was replaced by a period in which Indo-European invaders and migrants poured into India and began to mix with local populations. A new civilization phase and a partial relocation occurred as a result.

The classical civilizations (1000 to 500 BCE) were situated in areas where river valley civilizations had flourished earlier, although they usually relocated somewhat and always expanded. Indian civilization spread through the whole subcontinent, with its focus now in the Ganges River basin rather than in the northwest.

Classical India (1000 to 500 BCE) involves the in-migration of Arian or Indo- European peoples, whose culture was gradually codified into major works of literature and religious philosophy. India, in this second civilization period, settled down into more recognizably coherent development, with a major empire in the 4th century BCE—the Mauryan Empire—and, at the end of the classical period, another major imperial statement—the Gupta Empire.

Classical China generated Confucianism, the most important ideological statement in the East Asian tradition, as well as Daoism. On the whole, however, China’s culture was resolutely secular. Of all the classical traditions, India was the most spiritual, generating Hinduism, Brahmanism, and Buddhism.

Hello sir,according to you harrapan civilization was the first civilization which came into existance in india.How harrapan civilization disappeared.

A procession of civilizations developed first in Mesopotamia; some of these expanded into empires in the Middle East and into the Indian subcontinent. The Harappan civilization seems to have developed elaborate cities
with highly advanced urban technologies. The fact that most of these early civilizations clustered along river valleys was no accident. River valleys provided the most abundant
opportunities for agriculture and, therefore, the promise of surplus.

It was replaced by a period in which Indo-European invaders and migrants poured into India and began to mix with local populations. A new civilization phase and a partial relocation occurred as a result.

The Indus or Harappan civilization developed in the region of modern Pakistan, and excavated sites dating from 2500–1500 B.C.E. show an unusual conformity in the culture based upon similar city layouts, building construction and flood walls. Reasons for the decline of this civilization are open to speculation, but could involve abnormal flooding and/or the appearance of warlike nomads around 1800 B.C.E.

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cherrybhatnagar | Student, Undergraduate | (Level 1) Honors

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Harappan civilization (so called because Harappa was one of its major cities) originated around 2500 BCE in the northwestern section of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan, along the Indus River.

The end of the early civilization period is marked by a hiatus around 1200–800 BCE. Harappan civilization, for example, simply disappeared. It was replaced by a period in which Indo-European invaders and migrants poured into India and began to mix with local populations. A new civilization phase and a partial relocation occurred as a result.

The classical civilizations (1000 to 500 BCE) were situated in areas where river valley civilizations had flourished earlier, although they usually relocated somewhat and always expanded. Indian civilization spread through the whole subcontinent, with its focus now in the Ganges River basin rather than in the northwest.

Classical India (1000 to 500 BCE) involves the in-migration of Arian or Indo- European peoples, whose culture was gradually codified into major works of literature and religious philosophy. India, in this second civilization period, settled down into more recognizably coherent development, with a major empire in the 4th century BCE—the Mauryan Empire—and, at the end of the classical period, another major imperial statement—the Gupta Empire.

Classical China generated Confucianism, the most important ideological statement in the East Asian tradition, as well as Daoism. On the whole, however, China’s culture was resolutely secular. Of all the classical traditions, India was the most spiritual, generating Hinduism, Brahmanism, and Buddhism.

Hello sir,according to you harrapan civilization was the first civilization which came into existance in india.How harrapan civilization disappeared.

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krishna-agrawala | College Teacher | (Level 3) Valedictorian

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No, Aryans were not the first people to come and settle in India, though they did started coming to India long ago - perhaps more than 6000 years back. The earliest known settlers in India, who were already present there, when Aryans started coming to India, were Dravidian.

When Aryans came to India from the north east side, the Dravidian gradually moved to South India. In additions to the Dravidian people, there were also had many different tribal people living in different parts of India. These tribal people have been there from the prehistoric period.

epollock's profile pic

epollock | (Level 3) Valedictorian

Posted on

Harappan civilization (so called because Harappa was one of its major cities) originated around 2500 BCE in the northwestern section of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan, along the Indus River.

The end of the early civilization period is marked by a hiatus around 1200–800 BCE. Harappan civilization, for example, simply disappeared. It was replaced by a period in which Indo-European invaders and migrants poured into India and began to mix with local populations. A new civilization phase and a partial relocation occurred as a result.

The classical civilizations (1000 to 500 BCE) were situated in areas where river valley civilizations had flourished earlier, although they usually relocated somewhat and always expanded. Indian civilization spread through the whole subcontinent, with its focus now in the Ganges River basin rather than in the northwest.

Classical India (1000 to 500 BCE) involves the in-migration of Arian or Indo- European peoples, whose culture was gradually codified into major works of literature and religious philosophy. India, in this second civilization period, settled down into more recognizably coherent development, with a major empire in the 4th century BCE—the Mauryan Empire—and, at the end of the classical period, another major imperial statement—the Gupta Empire.

Classical China generated Confucianism, the most important ideological statement in the East Asian tradition, as well as Daoism. On the whole, however, China’s culture was resolutely secular. Of all the classical traditions, India was the most spiritual, generating Hinduism, Brahmanism, and Buddhism.

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