Are there any examples of anecdotes, allusions, analogies, or irony in Into the Wild?

There are many anecdotes, analogies, and allusions, as well as irony, in the book. Krakauer tells the anecdote of Chris working at a McDonald's. Chris is seen as analogous to a pilgrim or religious traveler. The book alludes frequently to authors as such as Tolstoy. Finally, the book recognizes the ironies surrounding Chris's death.

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Into the Wild contains numerous examples of anecdotes, allusions, analogies, and irony . An anecdote is a short narrative about an event. One anecdote is Ron Franz’s recollection about a conversation with Chris about adopting him. Irony can refer to the implications of information that a person withholds from another....

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Into the Wild contains numerous examples of anecdotes, allusions, analogies, and irony. An anecdote is a short narrative about an event. One anecdote is Ron Franz’s recollection about a conversation with Chris about adopting him. Irony can refer to the implications of information that a person withholds from another. There is irony in Chris’s not telling Ron that his parents were alive. An analogy is a comparison between two things that are similar. One example is the author’s characterization of Chris’s trip as an odyssey. This is also an allusion, a reference to an actual person or event or to another text.

Author Jon Krakauer relies heavily on anecdotes in putting together a composite portrait of Chris. Ron Franz, whose wife and child had died, related an anecdote to Krakauer about wanting to make Chris part of his family. Ron—who knew Chris by his pseudonym of Alex—believes that Alex has no family, so he offers to adopt him. This anecdote includes irony because Chris actually did have living parents, but withholds this information from Ron.

An analogy is a comparison of two things which may or may not be obviously related. In the book, Krakauer calls Chris’s extended journey an “odyssey.” By this comparison, he means that Chris had embarked on an arduous voyage that included both physically traveling as well as attempts at emotional and mental self-discovery. Chris not only wanted to reach remote part of Alaska but also was engaged on a quest to learn about identity. The comparison also alludes to Homer's Odyssey.

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There are many anecdotes or small stories that help characterize Chris McCandless. For example, we learn of him having been a good and reliable McDonald's worker, but his manager feeling concerned over broaching the delicate problem of him smelling bad. She didn't want him to quit, but it was troubling that he stank. This illustrates that Chris was a moral and honorable person but didn't feel he had to live by society's norms, such as daily bathing.

The book includes analogies. One analogy likens McCandless to a pilgrim. A pilgrim is a religious traveler who journeys to get closer to God. Travelers are often categorized as either outcast wanderers, tourists, or pilgrims. Pilgrims, unlike outcasts, journey voluntarily. Unlike tourists, pilgrims do not travel to consume sights, have fun, and come home with photos, but for spiritual transformation. In the quote below, Krakauer uses the analogy of Chris as (possibly) a pilgrim to try to begin to "get at" who he was:

And he wasn't a nutcase, he wasn't a sociopath, he wasn't an outcast. McCandless was something else—although precisely what is hard to say. A pilgrim, perhaps.

The book is stuffed with allusions, which are references to other works of literature or to history. It is easy for Krakauer to come up allusions, because Chris himself was so immersed in literature and modeled himself on precursors such as Thoreau and Tolstoy. In one chapter heading, for instance, Krakauer quotes Tolstoy's Family Happiness, a work Chris read with avid interest:

I wanted movement and not a calm course of existence. I wanted excitement and danger and the chance to sacrifice myself for my love. I felt in myself a superabundance of energy which found no outlet in our quiet life.

This quote helps us understand Chris.

Finally, Chris's life is marked by irony. He could have saved himself, for instance, had he had a topo map, which would have shown him an aid station close to where he was camped. This incident feeds into two overarching ironies: Chris wanted to make it on his own, but the irony is that we all need others to survive. Ironically, too, it was during his time alone in Alaska, during which he absorbed himself in Family Happiness, that he decided he wanted a life with family and community.

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There are definitely examples of irony in Into the Wild. One part that I have always found ironic is that McCandless donated his money to OXFAM America.  OXFAM America is a hunger relief organization.  The irony concerning McCandless's donation is that he later died from starvation.  

As for an allusion, I have always liked how Krakauer frequently compares McCandless to a variety of historical figures.  Krakauer frequently alludes to similarities and differences between McCandless and Thoreau.  For example:

Unlike Muir and Thoreau, McCandless went into the wilderness not primarily to ponder nature or the world at large but, rather, to explore the inner country of his own soul. 

In this particular passage, Krakauer is calling to attention a key difference between McCandless and men like Muir and Thoreau.  The text provides a bit of information of what that difference is, but the allusion to those men becomes much more informative if the reader is somewhat familiar with who those two men are and what they did.  

Large portions of the book are made up of analogies and anecdotes.  Anecdotes are typically short, and Krakauer does provide those during the text, but I believe the best anecdotes in the book are contained within chapters 8 and 9.  These two chapters compare and contrast McCandless with 4 specific men.  Each description functions as both an anecdote and an analogy for how and why McCandless was different from each of those men. 

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There are definitely examples of each of the four literary terms you mentioned (anecdotes, allusions, analogies, and irony) in the novel   Into the Wild.  Irony plays a powerful role in the story of Christopher McCandless; his death in the Alaskan wilderness is incredibly ironic.  McCandless worked and longed for so long to reach a place of solitude in the Alaskan setting, yet his presence there resulted in his death.  That, in and of itself, is an irony.  It appears that, prior to his death, McCandless recognized his innate need for love, yet he had placed himself in a situation that would not allow him to act upon that recognition.  It is also ironic that, had McCandless simply researched what would become his surroundings in the wild and accepted information, he probably would have been aware of a means by which he could have survived his ordeal.

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