1 Answer | Add Yours
The question is not actually a question, and refers to a specific map in the Longman Atlas of World Issues that his not readily available on the internet (the option to purchase the atlas notwithstanding). Because the assignment itself is easily found on the internet, however, with additional information provided, what follows is an attempt at providing information that the student may find useful.
In general, any map of the world focused in identifying the locations of major terrorist organizations and activities, and there are disturbingly many, will display countries like Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Colombia, Peru, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Israel and the Palestinian territories, Algeria, Egypt, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and others. For each of these countries and regions, there are numerous websites and academic papers readily available from which useful information can be drawn. The issue of funding tends to be a little more complicated, but, again, information can be found online as well as at some libraries and bookstores.
Putting aside the old adage about ‘one man’s terrorist being another man’s freedom fighter’ and readily acknowledging that most Muslims view Hezbollah and Hamas as legitimate resistance armies against Jewish occupation of Islamic and Palestinian land, the United States and many “Western” countries view Lebanon’s Hezbollah in particular as indisputably a terrorist organization. Certainly its history leaves little doubt that, by its actions, it carries out terrorist operations against Jewish and Israeli targets, including the bombings of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut in April 1983, the truck-bombing of the U.S. Marine and French Army barracks in Beirut in October of that same year; the car-bomb attack on the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in March 1992; and the suicide bombing of the Jewish Cultural Center, also in Buenos Aires, in July 1994. Hezbollah, in fact, is considered the “gold standard” among terrorist organizations for its military prowess, international reach, and proficiency at carrying out terrorist attacks. Hezbollah, while comprised of Lebanese Shi’a, was created at the behest of the government of Iran in 1982 to fight Israel’s occupation of southern Lebanon, which, in turn, had occurred in response to terrorist attacks by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which had, until Israel’s 1982 invasion, dominated Lebanon. Iran remains the ultimate authority over Hezbollah and provides most of its funding. Syria is the other major supporter of Hezbollah, providing both arms and money, but mainly acts as a conduit for Iranian weapons transported to Lebanon.
Another major terrorist organization is the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia People’s Army, or FARC. Founded in 1964, the FARC has emerged as one of the largest and most formidable guerrilla armies and terrorist organizations in the world. Since its founding, and to varying degrees, it has controlled large swaths of Colombian territory, while also enjoying safe havens in neighboring countries Ecuador and Venezuela. The dense jungles of the region provide ample space for concealing their activities, for example, training of recruits and planning attacks, and radical-left governments in Caracas and Quito have provided support. Most of the FARC’s funding has historically come from extorting money from cocaine traffickers, wealthy farmers and ranchers, and villagers, and from trafficking in drugs themselves, as well as from kidnappings.
An obvious choice of a terrorist organization would be al Qaeda, Arabic for “The Base,” the organization founded by the late Osama bin Laden and which carried out the devastating attacks on the United States in September 2001. Having been formed from the remnants of the Islamic mujahedeen movement that fought the Soviet Union’s occupation of Afghanistan throughout the 1980s, a movement funded and supported by the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan, al Qaeda was founded by bin Laden to eliminate all vestiges of western influence from Islamic lands, stretching from Morocco in the West to Muslim-majority regions in Southeast Asia to the East. Its initial focus has been on the United States, whose military forces based in the Arabian Peninsula to, first, remove Iraqi troops from Kuwait following its invasion in 1990, and then to support continued military operations in the region in an effort at forcing Iraq to divest itself of its remaining weapons of mass destruction – weapons, it turned out, that had been destroyed by 1998, unbeknownst to U.S. intelligence agencies – but than grew to its broader goals of eliminating all western influences from the region. Following bin Laden’s death in May 2011, al Qaeda’s titular leader has been Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden’s long-time second-in-command and an Egyptian doctor long steeped in the politics and militancy of Islamic extremism. Al-Zawahiri is believed to be hiding somewhere in northwestern Pakistan. Al Qaeda’s main sources of funding have been, first, bin Laden’s personal wealth, courtesy of his late-father’s business success in Saudi Arabia’s construction industry, as well as a continuous stream of donations from wealthy Arabs throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, al Qaeda also received a lot of money from the diversion of charitable donations throughout the Islamic world to his organization.
These are just three of the numerous terrorist organizations operating around the world. Additional possibilities could include Palestinian Islamic Jihad; the Shining Path of Peru, which had been defeated but shows signs of reestablishing itself; Hamas; the Animal Liberation Front; Alpha 66, an organization comprised of militant anti-Castro Cuban émigrés; and the U.S.-based Army of God, largely defunct with the arrest of Eric Robert Rudolph, but responsible for bombings of abortion clinics and the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Internet searches of each of these organizations will turn up considerable information on all of them.
We’ve answered 318,936 questions. We can answer yours, too.Ask a question