Although you do not ask a question here, I've decided the best way to address your statement is to emphasize the 'big' picture. First and foremost the plight of civil liberties in the U.S. began long before the mid-twentieth century. As far back as the early 1830's many Americans believed that to discriminate against Americans because of their race, religion, or sex was detrimental to the American experience. William Lloyd Garrison, Elizabeth Cady Stanton are perfect examples of how the early Abolitionist and Women's Rights movements paved the way for the future of the 'golden age' of the Civil rights movement. The early decades of the twentieth century saw the advances of the N.A.A.C.P. and the steadfast zeal of women resulting in an increase of African American college graduates and the 19th Amendment. After WWII the Civil Rights movement tapped into the political, economic, and social fabric of America, however this was not without great sacrifice. Several leaders paid the ultimate price, among them Medger Evers, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and Robert Kennedy. Furthermore the peaceful mentality of the Civil Rights movement during the 1950's turned violent by the 1960's. Whether or not one believes that the rise of the Black Panthers and the ideology of Malcolm X's black separatism helped or hindered the movement is still debated today.
It is really very hard to answer such a vague question. If you can ask more specific questions, we can help you more.
The first thing to know about the Civil Rights Movement is that it was a political/social movement that was undertaken by African Americans (with help from others) as a way to get rights for themselves that would be equal to the rights that white people enjoyed. They had to do this because there were laws in those days that segregated blacks from whites in the South.
The second thing to know is that the movement can be said to have started in the 1950s and to have ended in the 1960s. You could say the movement started with the Brown v. Board of Education case of 1954 or you can say it started with the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-6. The movement effectively ended with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.