- Bering Strait
- Yucatan Peninsula
- Chichen Itza
- Hernán Cortés
- Machu Picchu
- . Francisco Pizarro
- Lake Texcoco
- Five Pillars of Islam
- Muhammad Ali
- Umayyad Caliphate
- Shias and Sunnis
- Seljuk Turks
- Battle of Manzikert
- Mehmet II
- “fleets of the desert”
- Omar Khayyam
- The Body of Civil Law
- Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia is a building that is in Istanbul Turkey. The name is Greek and it means "holy wisdom." It was built during the time of the Romans and it was a church. The city back then was called Constantinople in honor of Constantine, the first Christian Roman Emperor. In time Hagia Sophia turned into a Mosque as the Christians and Muslims fought. Now it is a museum and it is a wonderful place to visit. By studying this building you can learn a lot about the Romans, Eastern church, Islam and Christianity.
Machu Picchu is a famous Inca ruined city, situated near Cuzco in Peru. It was only rediscovered towards the beginning of the 20th century and since then has been a major tourist destination for tens of thousands of tourists each year. It is an incredible site and a true testament to the level of sophistication of the Inca civilisation. You can google it to see an image of it.
The Five Pillars of Islam are:
- The public profession of faith.
- Prayer five times a day
- Fasting, particularly during Ramadan
- The giving of charity
- Going on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a person's life if at all possible.
Together, these are the five things that any Muslim must do.
Some of your terms will be a little difficult to put into a short definition. For instance, Aztec refers to a specific group of people and their culture. Wikipedia is a good place to start, but remember that wikipedia is not an accredited source. That means anyone can post anything to it. The information you find their might not necessarily be accurate. It is a good place to start, but remember to look things over carefully and double check the information you find there. Many of these terms can also be found in the eNotes reference pages. You might try simply Googling each term to find an accredited source of information for each term.
Chichen Itza is a Mayan city on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula. It was a major cultural center from about 600 AD to about 1000 AD. It is now a federally protected archeological site, and an amazing place to visit. Chichen Itza had many buildings; some survived and some have been restored, including the famous step pyramid "El Castillo" and the Mayan observatory known as "El Caracol".
The advice to use wikipedia is good advice, especially given that you have a list this long. Wikipedia can point you in the direction of some good, reliable sources, and, in cases such as this, the wikipedia entries themselves should also be reliable.
You may also want to track down some peer-reviewed historical dictionaries, preferably ones published by university presses (since books published by such presses are almost by definition peer-reviewed). Here are some possible leads:
Yes, that is quite a lot isn't it? I suggest you go to wikipedia. You will be able to easily find all of those there. It's not too hard, since you had to type all those words anyway. For example:
Muhammad-Ali is a single entity (made up of the individuals Muhammad and Ali) in the Shi'a Islam branch known as Alevism. Muhammad is considered a "prototypical human," while Ali is the "divine light." They are similar to parts of the Christian trinity (Father, Son and Holy Ghost), whereas Allah is the Father, Muhammad is the Son, and Ali represents the Holy Spirit. I assume you are not referring to the famed boxer Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay), who took his name from the above characters.
Sounds like you have your work cut out for you! Wow. I can help with one word:
obsidian is basically volcanic glass, though it is has a "chemical composition" like granite. It can sometimes run from green to red in color, it is most commonly black. The materials can be made very sharp. It has been found on archeological digs from cultures of the past, but it can sometimes be found also on a surgeon's table because it can be sharper and much thinner than steel. I would assume, then, that the extreme heat of the volcano makes this "glass" much stronger than the glasses we drink from.