The poem was written in 1849.
The poem, "Annabel Lee" does not state directly how Annabel Lee died. In the 3rd stanza the line, "Chilling my Annabel Lee", and the lines in the 4th stanza, ..... , chilling / And killing my Annabel Lee" might indicate that she died of influenza or pneumonia which would have been common in the 19th century. This is conjecture, of course, since the poem does not represent any one person in particular. Many have speculated that the inspiration for the poem was Poe's young wife, Virginia Clemm, but she outlived Poe so her death was not an issue with him.