In "Animal Farm" how does Napoleon create a common and absent enemy?

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clane eNotes educator| Certified Educator

The common and absent enemy is Snowball. Napoleon manages to paint him as such because he had him run off the farm. Napoleon took the nine puppies born to one of the dogs and raised those puppies himself to be his body guards and his mechanism for striking fear into the hearts and minds of the animals who might also be dissidents. When the dogs were first debuted to the farm it was in order to run Snowball off the farm. With Snowball gone, unable to defend his actions, Napoleon begins to blame all the problems of the farm on him, using him as a scapegoat. He was perfect for the job because he was no where to be seen or found so the animals began to believe it too. Napoleon used Squealer, a dynamic speaker, and the animals' poor memories and lack of intelligence to paint Snowball into the enemy he needed in order to get things done on the farm.