There are several experiments run by the scientists of The Andromeda Strain, as the novel is hard science fiction with a very realistic depiction of medical investigation. One experiment in chapter 15 details their use of a supercomputer to locate the organism itself that caused the outbreak in the story. The computer magnifies the specimen, first by five-fold and then by twenty-fold, but does not reveal anything.
Finally they find a black speck: the story has both characters excited at the possibility of discovering a totally new type of life. However, they notice that the organism, upon inspection, begins to change color. The scientists determine that it is growing: although they do not know it at the time, it is eventually revealed that this is because the organism feeds on energy.
The scientists then use a variety of organic mediums for growing the organism in hundreds of petri dishes so they can expose it to different levels of heat, light, pressure, oxygen, and vacuum. The results that they receive in chapter 17 detail how the organism was capable of spreading but not killing the two survivors, the old man and the infant.