In his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, Martin Luther King Jr. uses a determined, hopeful tone to educate listeners about the problem of racial inequality and encourage a more equitable future. For instance, recall how he passionately states,
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
He repeats the phrase “I have a dream” over and over again to give the listener hope and to show that he will not give up on a better future for the United States.
Another element that makes this speech so effective is King’s use of specific vocabulary. His use of advanced words demonstrates his intelligence and credibility and also helps craft vivid images in the minds of his listeners. For instance, note how he says that
the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself in exile in his own land.
Here, King is essentially saying that Black people are still marginalized. He could have simply stated that, but instead, he used descriptive words like languished and exile, which emphasize how painful the experience of social marginalization is for people of color.
King also used rhetorical patterns to emphasize the need for change. For example, note how he repeats the phrase “one hundred years” several times. The way he uses this phrase at the start of many sentences back to back emphasizes how long it has been and how little change has taken place.