Analyze how Santiago tries to defy his defeat?
When the sharks attack his giant marlin, Santiago more or less knows that he is fighting a losing battle, but he continues to fight them off as hard as he can for as long as he can.
He harpoons the fierce mako shark that first goes for his marlin. The scent of blood attracts more sharks, and two shovel-nosed sharks close in. He kills them with his knife attached to an oar. When he kills a third shark, his knife snaps off in its flesh. When more sharks come, Santiago attempt to club them. However, he is exhausted, and they are large pack, too many to fight all at once. They strip his marlin to the bones.
Nevertheless, Santiago is undefeated. Back on shore in Havana, people marvel at the eighteen-foot skeleton of the marlin. Santiago, who is reinvigorated, says he will go again tomorrow to fish. That night, he dreams of his lions: his happy place. This shows he is undefeated. He might have lost the marlin, but he is still able to fight the good fight, as he could when he was a younger man, and his spirits are untroubled.
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