Analyze F. Scott Fitzgerald's use of figurative language in this passage of The Great Gatsby and how its final metaphor contributes to the overall meaning of the novel. The passage starts with "When Jordan ... " and ends with "purposeless splendor."

F. Scott Fitzgerald's use of figurative language in this passage of The Great Gatsby reveals to Nick Carraway that Gatsby's "splendor" was not without purpose. Winning the affections of Daisy has long been the purpose of his movements. This passage serves as a larger metaphor, a belief in the "green light," a better tomorrow that we will pursue and "run faster" to.

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To fully appreciate this metaphor, it's important to examine some of the final lines in the book:

Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that’s no matter—tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther. ...

These lines, then, herald the eventual ending for Gatsby. He has always been stretching himself toward an impossibly romantic ideal: Daisy. And in doing so, Nick realizes that Gatsby is not simply a man reaching for the metaphorical stars. He reaches toward the absolute perfection of his sole focus of adoration. Thus, "it had not been merely the stars to which he had aspired on that June night." Gatsby's stretch toward a seemingly impossible goal becomes a metaphor to remind us all that we need to "stretch" ourselves farther today than we did yesterday.

When Nick realizes the sense of purpose in Gatsby's location across the bay from Daisy, he is seemingly born a new man to our narrator. Nick realizes that Gatsby's "splendor," the parties of excess, are not "purposeless." Indeed, every detail has been carefully constructed in an effort toward captivating the heart of his one ultimate goal. Gatsby is transformed in Nick's mind from a fun guy who enjoys entertaining the masses to a shrewd romantic who could not care less about the masses—as long as he ultimately wins the hand of the girl who captured his heart years ago.

Ultimately, of course, both the splendor and the purpose fail Gatsby, and his life ends because of the very light he is hopelessly drawn to follow.

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The passage to which you refer in your question is found toward the end of chapter four of The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and it is replete with figurative language. The two speakers in the passage are Jordan Baker and Nick Carraway, the narrator of the story. Most of the figurative language can be found in the initial paragraph of the passage:

When Jordan Baker had finished telling all this we had left the Plaza for half an hour and were driving in a victoria through Central Park. The sun had gone down behind the tall apartments of the movie stars in the West Fifties, and the clear voices of girls, already gathered like crickets on the grass, rose through the hot twilight: "I'm the Sheik of Araby. Your love belongs to me. At night when you're asleep, Into your tent I'll creep--" 

The only simile (a comparison between two things using "like" or "as") in the passage is found in the second sentence, where Fitzgerald compares the girls, gathered in groups, to a collection of chirping crickets gathered in the grass.

Sensory imagery appeals to the senses, and there are several examples of this in the passage. The sights include Central Park, tall apartment buildings, the car itself, and small groups gathered on the grass, all seen through the lens of twilight and a setting sun. The sounds include the car, the nature sounds of whatever creatures inhabit the park, the gaggle of girls singing "Sheik of Araby." Touch imagery includes the car seats beneath them and the heat, even at twilight, and the coolness of the sunset's shadows; smell imagery includes the smells of the car (inside and out) as well as the smells of the park. 

The conversation in between the first and last paragraphs does not offer anything in the way of figurative language; however, it does set up the final metaphor.

"It was a strange coincidence," I said.

"But it wasn't a coincidence at all."

"Why not?"

"Gatsby bought that house so that Daisy would be just across the bay."

Nick ends this excerpt with this commentary:

Then it had not been merely the stars to which he had aspired on that June night. He came alive to me, delivered suddenly from the womb of his purposeless splendor.

Again there is a hint of sensory imagery in the form of the stars of a summer night, the night Nick saw his neighbor Gatsby for the first time. It is the metaphor (an implied comparison between two things) which is most striking, however.

Until now, Nick has always seen Gatsby as living in a "womb of...purposeless splendor," alone in his gargantuan, empty, and ostentatious house. Tonight, after talking with Jordan, Gatsby has figuratively been "delivered" (freed) from that meaningless, showy "womb." Nick now understands that Gatsby's actions have purpose and meaning; they are not more of the empty, idle acts of the rich. 

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