These questions pertain to American Government and Congress.
1. The question of what powers are appropriate to Congress (a) was answered clearly and finally by the lengthy enumeration of powers in Article I of the Constitution (b.) continues to generate substantial controversy, despite the lengthy enumeration of powers in the Constitution (c) was a matter of controversy during the early years of the Union but no longer generates much controversy or (d) concerns only insignificant issues today
2. The ________ Committee is powerful in the U.S. House but not the Senate. -a. Budget b. Rules c. Appropriations or d. Armed Services
3. The most important job of the party leaders in Congress is - a. to schedule legislation b. to guide bargaining and negotiation over the content of legislation c. to control the content of all legislation or d. to appoint committee and subcommittee chairpersons
4. When the majority in Congress and the president are of the same party - a. Congress still retains its power to debate, shape, pass, or defeat legislation proposed by the president b. the president chooses the majority party's congressional leadership c. the president chooses the major committee chairpersons or d. interest groups are less active in congressional politics
5. Congressional representatives tend to be most receptive to interest groups that - a. represent a variety of different interests b. have worked closely with the president c. represent interests that are important in their home districts or d. are well organized nationwide
6. A congressional representative is following the trustee philosophy when he or she - a. takes instructions from party leaders on how to vote b. votes in accordance with the perceived wishes of the citizens back home c. votes according to his or her conscience, even if doing so means going against the wishes of the majority back home d. consults the president before an important vote
Because you have asked so many questions, I cannot answer at length. So, I will give you an answer and a brief explanation for each question.
- Option C. People do not have many arguments over what Congress is allowed to do. This was an issue early on. For example, there was the case of McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819, in which the Supreme Court ruled that the Congress could set up the Bank of the United States. The Court said that the “Elastic Clause” in the Constitution let Congress do many things that are not enumerated. This is no longer a major issue today.
- Option B. The House has rules that govern how each bill will be debated and amended. The Rules Committee decides on these rules, which can strongly affect the way bills will be handled. The Senate has no such rules and no Rules Committee.
- Option D. Party leaders’ main power is to appoint chairs of committees and subcommittees because those individuals have a great deal of power over what happens to bills that are referred to their panels.
- Option A. Congress still has power even when the government is not divided. For example, when President Bush proposed privatizing Social Security to some degree in 2005, his proposal failed even though the Republicans had majorities in both houses of Congress.
- Option C. Nothing is more important to most members of Congress than getting reelected. Interest groups that are strong in their home districts can have more of an impact on their reelection chances than any of these other kinds of groups mentioned in the question. This is why the members are most receptive to such groups.
- Option C. The trustee philosophy holds that voters elect their representatives and then trust them to do the right thing. The representative votes based on their own conscience, not on what party leaders or the voters think.