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Arguably. the greatest wave of immigrants arriving in the United States was the nearly one million Irish who came after the Great Famine of the 1845. After Napoleon was defeated in France in 1815, travel restrictions were loosened and nearly 150,000 European immigrants arrived. Then, as Europe seemed to be getting more crowded and many people were displaced, by the 1830s nearly 600,000 arrived in New York City. By the 1840s, the numbers increased to nearly 1.7 million. However, the largest number of immigrants arrived during the 1850s: approximately 2.6 million, among whom so many were starving Irish, but many others were Germans, who fled because of an economic depression; others were Jewish who came to America, fleeing growing anti-Semitism in Europe. Those from Poland and Russia fled bloody pogroms; they increased from three thousand in 1818 to one hundred fifty thousand in 1850. Also in this largest of numbers in the middle of the nineteenth century were the Scandinavian immigrants from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, adventurous people who also fled "persecution or discrimination rooted in religious intolerance." With many who were farmers, they settled in Minnesota, Iowa, and North Dakota. (In fact, Minnesota is the Norwegian capital of the United States.) In addition to economic, political, and religious reasons--hunger or persecution--there was always, too, the enticement of opportunity and the possibilities of a free society that drew many immigrants to the expansive new country.
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