I am writing a paper on W. E. B. Dubois and I have to use Harbrace footnote style.  What does that mean and where can I find examples of the footnote format?

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The Writer's Harbrace Handbook states that footnotes need to adhere to either the CMS (The Chicago Manual of Style) when using footnotes in a paper.

According to CMS, footnotes in this style must:

1. Need to appear at the bottom of the page and be single-spaced.

2.Each footnote needs to include name of author, title of work, source of publication, and date of publication. If only specific pages are used from a text, one must include specific page numbers.

3. Use “Ibid.” You will use this notation when referring to a text previously notated (only if the next footnote is from the same text). If a previously notated footnote, use the last name of the author and page number only.

4. If using secondary sources, one must first name the secondary source and then the primary.


1. Seymour Miles, The Long and Winding Road (New York: Traveling Books, 1969), 231.

2. Ibid., 231.

3. Norris, 132-135.

4. Theodore Sedgwick, Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States (New York: D. Fanshaw, 1844), 31, quoted in Lyon Rathbun, "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny," Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 479.