It is possible to view this extremely powerful example of the science fiction genre as a critique on political corruption and power. In some ways, the society of this future dystopia could be said to be allegorical, with the feuding ruling houses representing the political elite in today's world who ignore the interests of the common people, represented in the Fremen of Arrakis. What brings the political allegory to the fore more explicitly is the series of truisms provided by the consort of Paul Atreides, such as the following example:
When religion and politics travel in the same cart, the riders believe nothing can stand in their way. Their movements become headlong--faster and faster and faster. They put aside all thoughts of obstacles and forget the precipice does not show itself to the man in a blind rush until it's to late.
This of course is the state of play at the opening of the novel, where politics and religion are wedded inextricably, and as a result, the ruling powers are unable to see the way in which the present regime is heading towards a precipice from which there will be no return. In terms of your study of this novel therefore, you would be wise to consider what parallels can be identified between this future society and our present day society, and in particular what message Herbert might be communicating through his novel.