Cause and effect means that BECAUSE something happened or occurred, it resulted in another action or event, an EFFECT.
Taking an example from the book. Because Bruno's father was a high ranking member of the Nazi party, they have had to move their residence from Berlin to "Out With" or Auschwitz. This has also affected Bruno's childhood experiences. He no longer has friends living nearby, and he seeks out the company of people his own age.
".....they had all been forced to leave their comfortable home and come to this terrible place, whichmust have been the greatest wrong ever committed to him in his short life." (pg 98)
Another example is that because Bruno's father is a high ranking member of the Nazi party and a follower of Hitler, Bruno's education changes. Hitler strongly believed in Hitler youth and the future of Germany and believed in the indoctrination of young minds into his beliefs. Bruno loved the arts and reading. However, his teacher tells him,
"Those things are useless to you....A sound understanding of the social sciences is far more important in this day and age." (pg 97)
Another example that does not involve Bruno is that because the Jews and the Polish were taken as prisoners, Pavel was not allowed to practice as a doctor. He was a doctor, but he was only allowed to wait on tables.
Because he was afraid of Lieutenant Kohler, Bruno lied about knowing Shmuel.
"...he wanted to say the right thing to make things better, but then he realized that he couldn't because he was feeling just as terrified himself." (pg 172)
Because he lied about knowing Shmuel, he was very ashamed of himself.
"He wondered how a boy who thought he was a good person really could act in such a cowardly way toward a friend." (pg 174)
The effect on Shmuel because of Bruno's lies was that he was beat severely.
This book is filled with cause and effect examples. The biggest example is BECAUSE they exterminated men and children in large groups at Auschwitz, Bruno died.
1. Because Bruno's and Gretel's tutor taught discrimination against Jews, Gretel covered her bedroom wall with posters of Nazi propaganda.
2. Because Shmuel's father went missing, Bruno changed into striped prison clothes and disguised himself as a prisoner so that he could help Shmuel find his father in the prison.