I am going to write a critical essay on a translation of a novel, short story or any literature text. I need a text that is easy to research so I can approach the text critically from multiple levels like the translator should have translated like this because the original writer actually meant this etc. Can anyone advise me some texts that has extensive researches on?
This is a great question. You might want to choose the most translated text in the world. In this way you have plenty of examples and many translations. The text I am referring to is the Bible.
There are three basic theories: (1) literal translations (2) dynamic equivalence translations (3) paraphrase translations.
Literal translations try to take the Hebrew and Greek text and translate them word for word, even if it sounds odd in English. The NASB translation is a example of this theory.
Dynamic equivalence translations seek to translate a text in a way that is faithful to the meaning of the original setting. So, they might translate an idiom from the ancient world by using an idiom of the modern world . To them this is an equivalent. The NIV translation is an example of this theory.
Paraphrases are just like they sound. They seek to give the meaning only. There is a lot of flexibility for these translators. Philips Bible and the Message by Eugene Peterson are examples of this.
If you want to go deeper and study textual transmission, take a look at the work of Bruce Metzger.