The French faction headed by Clemenceau wanted Germany smashed for revenge and brought to the point of such national weakness that starting another war would be impossible. England, headed by George, wanted Germany punished but so that reconciliation might be possible and so that German people might stand against the spread of communism instead of embrace it out of disillusionment. The U.S., headed by Wilson, wanted Europe reconciled and that to the point that the U.S. could stay out of European affairs. In some senses, the Treaty was a true peace treaty but was distorted by the cry for revenge and German impotence from European and English populace and from Clemenceau. Germany was not invited to the negotiations that were carried on between Clemenceau, George, Wilson, and Orlando of Italy.