After the destruction of the Temple, which elements of Judaism could be continued essentially as is, which had to be altered greatly, and which had to be discontinued? What innovations or new elements of Judaism were instituted in the post-Temple period and why?

After the destruction of the Temple, some elements of Judaism could be continued essentially as before, some had to be altered greatly and others discontinued completely. The Temple was the central site of sacrificial worship. Without it, sacrifice was discontinued. Over time, a foundation of liturgy or prayer evolved to replace sacrifice. Pilgrimages to the Temple were replaced by holiday festivals. Laws around social justice and requirements to leave a portion of the harvest for the poor remained largely intact.

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After the destruction of the Temple, some elements of Judaism could be continued essentially as before, such as the laws around the earth and its bounty. The culture in which Judaism originally developed evolved from one that was based on a nomadic people to an agrarian model. Thus, the many...

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After the destruction of the Temple, some elements of Judaism could be continued essentially as before, such as the laws around the earth and its bounty. The culture in which Judaism originally developed evolved from one that was based on a nomadic people to an agrarian model. Thus, the many laws around agricultural practices, such as rotating crops and allowing the lands to rest each jubilee period that occurred every 50 years could continue essentially unaltered. In addition, the laws around giving and social justice and support, including those that related to the agrarian culture, could also continue in pretty much the same ways. For example, Judaism taught that each landowner had to harvest the crops and reap the produce but leave the corners of the land untouched:

When you reap the harvest of your land, do not reap to the very edges of your field or gather the gleanings of your harvest. (Leviticus 19:9–11)

This measure was meant to assist poorer people who could not afford to own land and depended on the charity of others for their sustenance. Thus, the corners of the land were intended for charity and not for the landowner's proprietary use. This practice stayed the same even without the Temple.

A crucial practice that had to be discontinued was that of sacrifice, as sacrifice was conducted exclusively at the Temple by the priests. Innovations or new elements of Judaism that were instituted in the post-Temple period revolve around law and ritual or prayer, the reason being that there was no longer a central site for sacrifice.

Practices that had to be altered greatly revolve around certain holidays and their celebration. Sacrifices were elevated during certain most holy times when Jews from all parts of the region were expected to make pilgrimage to Jerusalem to participate in the rituals. Nevertheless, while the practice of sacrifice itself had to end without the Temple, many of the rules around sacrifice altered to produce holidays that continued to be celebrated by all. Thus, sacrifice was replaced over time by liturgy, or prayer, and pilgrimages were replaced by holidays. Festive holidays that were known as pilgrim festivals while the Temple stood because people were expected to travel to the Temple in Jerusalem to celebrate them were Sukkot , Passover, and Shavuot. These holidays are still celebrated in modern Judaism.

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