In Act 4, what does Macbeth do that seems to ensure his tragic downfall?

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As previously stated by another educator, Macbeth truly ensures his "tragic downfall" in act 1 when he murders King Duncan. This event sets in motion the rest of Macbeth's time in the "tragic hero" cycle that occurs throughout the rest of the play. However, if you really had to pinpoint a moment in act 4 that ensures Macbeth's downfall, it can be done.

One can assume that at anytime Macbeth could have backed down from what he had done and accepted his punishment for the crimes he had committed. However, you could say that the Witches lull Macbeth into a false sense of security in act 4. Macbeth meets with the witches for a second time during act 4, and in this meeting Macbeth learns that "no man of woman born may harm Macbeth." This statement immediately inflates Macbeth's ego as he assumes that he is now invincible, because in his mind, every man must be born of a woman. Therefore, you could say that this moment is the one that "ensures" Macbeth's tragic fall, as he deems himself invincible and therefore able to do actions he might have otherwise hesitated to do.

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Actually, his tragic downfall began when he murdered Duncan.

In Act IV, scene 1, he consults with the witches who have been instructed by Hecate to mislead him because he interfered with the predictions by killing Banquo and attempting to kill Fleance.  This they do by filling him with over-confidence.

In Act IV, scene 2, since he cannot get Macduff, he trys to neutralize him by killing his wife and children.  This action is perhaps the most heinous of all.

Act IV, scene 3, seems to seal Macbeth's fate when Macduff goes to Malcolm and offers his services.  With the help of the English king, Malcolm is able to raise an army and invade Scotland to take his rightful place as king.

All these actions lead to Macbeth's eventual downfall.

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