This book examines the unconscious bias that officers and law enforcement officials have against people of other races. While it is clearly wrong and against protocol to express outwardly racist opinions and tendencies, there are many subtle instances of bias.
For instance, the most telling example is the number of people arrested or investigated for minor crimes, such as certain types of drug use. The illegality of drugs like marijuana tends to result in black and minority users being imprisoned or apprehended for use or possession, while white users get warnings or fines.
Additionally, inherent bias can result in an assumption that a minor violation is the result of a larger issue as opposed to a simple solitary violation. For example, traffic violations perpetrated by minority individuals are treated as a problem of the racial group and their defiance of the law, while the same violations by majority individuals are treated as a single aberration in the law, not an epidemic issue.
Overall, the book presents a statistical exploration of crime rates and punishments for various ethnic groups, and it reveals that the bias is real towards individuals from minority groups. This results in a cycle of imprisonment, fines, and punishment that other groups do not have to deal with, maintaining oppression just like the historical Jim Crow Laws did.