According to the book Worlds Together Worlds Apart, volume 2, how and why was the world reordered between 1750 and 1850, and what role did Enlightenment ideas play in the transformation?  

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Between the years 1750 and 1850, the continued process of colonization, decolonial struggles/slave uprisings, wars for nation-state independence, Enlightenment philosophies, and the rise of the Industrial Revolution and the market revolution greatly shaped life for many people around the world.

In 1776, colonial America gained nation-state independence from the British. This war resulted in the transferring of power from one political elite to the next. Enlightenment-era philosophies influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Of course, in line with other nation-states of the time, this bold declaration of freedom did not extend to enslaved peoples, to the colonized Indigenous people who had their lands stolen and were forcibly removed from their homes, or to women of any race. The Enlightenment era absolutely reflected the thoughts of white men who held the immensely hypocritical beliefs of freedom and liberation while simultaneously often owning slaves or supporting the systems of slavery, colonization, and patriarchy.

In 1789, the French nation also experienced a revolution as people rose up against the ruling order. While, once again, declarations of freedom based on Enlightenment principles were published, they completely excluded women and the enslaved people of Haiti. Women and abolitionists across France published their own interpretations of Enlightenment ideologies to pursue liberation for themselves and to support the liberation of enslaved peoples.

Rebellions by oppressed people occurred with great ferocity and strength during this time period as well. The Haitian Revolution, which began in 1791, was an immensely successful uprising from self-liberated slaves, who overthrew the plantation slave system and liberated themselves from the colonial French nation. In the United States, by the 1800s, black abolitionists like Harriet Tubman, Denmark Vesey, and Nat Turner were planning and executing uprisings against slavery.

In the midst of these grassroots uprisings and state-based revolutions, the Industrial Revolution drastically altered the terrain of capitalism and industrialization. Once-independent nations, such as India, became the colonies of Britain as the British invaded the countries, gained control, and extracted massive amounts of resources (to produce textiles in their industrial factories at home, in the case of the British East India Company). The Industrial Revolution marked a significant step in industrializing the world, as powerful nations sought to exploit the nations of the Global South for their labor, resources, and land.

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