According to Jefferson, what do the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle everyone to do?

According to Jefferson, the laws of nature and nature's God entitle everyone to the enjoyment of their natural rights, essentially living their lives free of tyranny and oppression. Furthermore, when a government fails to uphold its obligations regarding the protection of those fundamental rights, it loses its legitimacy, allowing the people to install a new government in its place. In the case of the American Revolution, this same logic entitles the colonies to separate from Britain, legitimizing said Revolution.

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Borrowing heavily from the ideas of John Locke, the Declaration of Independence is ultimately based in the assumption that governments are founded to uphold and protect the natural rights of the governed, and that they only can maintain their legitimacy so long as they continue to uphold the original social contract which inspired their creation.

In this case, as the Declaration of Independence famously holds, all people are understood as sharing certain natural rights, those being the rights to "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness," and that it is the founding purpose of all governments to protect and safeguard those natural rights. I would say that, on a most fundamental level, according to this rhetoric and argumentation, all people are entitled to the enjoyment of those most fundamental rights, living their lives free of tyranny and oppression.

With this in mind, the chief argument of the Declaration of Independence centers around the claim that an infringement has occurred, by which the British government has not upheld its obligation to its colonies, but has acted tyrannically against them. By this logic, the colonies are therefore entitled to break away from Great Britain. This is the central logic through which the Declaration of Independence would defend the American Revolution and the argument through which it would claim legitimacy as a political action.

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Jefferson is relying on Enlightenment thinking, especially that of John Locke, in asserting the Laws of Nature (also called Natural Law) in support of American independence from Great Britain.

Jefferson is arguing that all people (he sees "people" as white males) have a natural right, granted to them by God, to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Because Natural Law guarantees this, the relationship between the ruled and a ruler becomes a contract, based on the consent of the governed. If the ruler becomes a tyrant, interfering with the Laws of Nature that allow men freedom and happiness, that ruler can be legitimately overthrown.

This is much different from medieval and Renaissance concepts of the relationship between the ruler and the ruled. Under the ideology of the Great Chain of Being, a ruler is appointed by God. The people have no say in this appointment and must obey. If a ruler turns out to be a tyrant, that is God's will: God has clearly sent the monarch as an "iron rod" to punish the people. The people simply have to go along with this.

Jefferson is saying, in contrast, that the people have a say in their governance and a natural, God-given right to reject tyranny. Much of the rest of the Declaration of Independence will outline the abuses of George III. In laying out this argument, Jefferson is doing his best to legitimize the revolution, especially in the eyes of fellow colonists who might have had doubts about breaking from England.

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In 1776, Thomas Jefferson penned the Declaration of Independence in response to a lack of British response to American grievances. Jefferson's thinking that led to the Declaration of Independence was heavily influenced by the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers. This included ideas centering around liberty, equality, and the role of the government as protectors of the rights of the people. In the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson states:

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Jefferson is basically saying that it is sometimes necessary for one people (Americans in this case) to break the political connection to another (the British). He states that this separation and equality between the nations are granted by God, thus providing justification for the Revolution.

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From the way that you have phrased this, it sounds to me as if you are simply asking for the specific words that Jefferson writes, not for the general meaning of what he says.  I will, however, answer in both ways.

If you are just looking for the exact words of the Declaration, Jefferson begins the document with the following words:

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them…

This makes it clear that what the laws of nature and nature’s god entitle people to is a “separate and equal station” “among the powers of the earth.”

So what does this mean?  It means that Jefferson believes that nature and God mean for people of various lands to be equal to one another.  He is saying that the colonists deserve to be independent (separate) of and equal to all other countries in the world.  He is saying that they are entitled by nature to be free and independent.  He is saying this about the country, not about the individual human beings.

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