Dewey supports what has come to be known as progressive education. Another way of saying that is that Dewey supports student centered learning. Historically, education is teacher centered. The teacher decides what will be taught each day/week/semester/etc. The teacher stands in front and tells students about the how/why/when/where/etc. of that particular subject area. Dewey wanted to flip that and go with student centered learning. The student would choose what to study and the teacher would act as a guide and facilitator for that student learning. The student determines the direction and intensity of their learning and is therefore completely based on the intrinsic motivation of the learner. Dewey also put a lot of emphasis on experiential education, which makes sense along side a student centered learning model.
His ideas can be seen all over modern day education. The concept of a "flipped" classroom is along those lines. Montessori schools are basically entire schools centered around students choosing topics and pacing of education topics.