Food production according to Jared Diamond is the process of growing food by agriculture or herding.
People until the last 11 millennia survived by hunting wild animals and searching for edible plant products in the wild. This was a very difficult task as food which we can consume is very difficult to obtain in the wild and does not have enough of the nutrients that we require.
When people started domesticating wild animals and plants and ate the livestock and crops which were the result of doing this, they created sources of food that were easy to obtain nutrients from and had enough of what was required. This made the shift to food production one of primary reasons for the development of groups of people around the world. Groups of people living in parts that adopted this practice earlier were able to dominate those that did not do so.